http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/ All of the basic facts provided by the CIA.
http://countryreports.org A site designed by students with lots of data.
http://www.embassy.org/ Great for finding the official web sites of many countries.
http://www.ethnologue.com/web.asp Look up a language and find out where it is spoken.
http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/ A great flag identifier tool.
http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/ A tourist site, but it has includes lots of good information.
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/atlas/ Black line maps with detail or not.
http://www.prb.org/Content/NavigationMenu/PRB/QuickFacts/QuickFacts.htm Population statistics.
http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/ Background Notes provided by the U.S. government.
http://www.yahooligans.com/Around_the_World/ This has links to lots of country information.